Central Asia

This category contains 21 posts

Despite US Sanctions on Iran, Green Light for the Southern Gas Corridor

SGCThe United States’ Federal Register published the “Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations” on November 5, re-imposing US sanctions on Iran (Federalregister.gov, November 5). This expected action by Washington had raised concerns in Baku about the potential implications of renewed Iran sanctions on Azerbaijan’s Shah Deniz-II (SDII) natural gas field Continue reading


The Perspective of Trans-Caspian Gas Flow to Europe

n383lev63bf11On August 12, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Iran, and Turkmenistan signed the Convention on the Caspian Sea’s Legal Status in Astana. The Convention’s provision endorsing the construction of a subsea pipeline raised optimism regarding the Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline (TCGP) project, which has been stalled due to the Caspian’s uncertain status. Continue reading

Caspian Convention Signing and the Implications for the Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline

TCP Без названияThe governments of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Iran and Turkmenistan gathered in the Kazakhstani port city of Aktau, on August 12, and signed the Convention on the Caspian Sea’s Legal Status. Among other important points, Article 14 of the Convention recognizes the parties’ right to lay underwater pipelines Continue reading

Difficult Geopolitics of the Caspian Complicate Potential Energy Projects

113496_7406ef53942744708e0eThe foreign ministers of the five littoral Caspian states—Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Iran—met in Moscow, on December 5, 2017, to try to finalize an agreement on the legal status of the Caspian Sea. After the talks, the Azerbaijani and Russian representatives, Elmar Mammadyarov and Sergei Lavrov, respectively, praised the narrowing of the five country’s positions (Azernews.az, December 5, 2017). Continue reading

The Southern Gas Corridor: Heading into the Home Stretch?

Trans-Adriatic-Pipeline-Selected-for-Shah-Deniz-Gas-TransportSecurity of gas supply is a priority for the European Union (EU) because it is critical to ensure that (1) supplies are not disrupted; (2) market can be competitive and (3) the EU cannot be blackmailed in foreign and security policy questions. Continue reading

Resurrection of Nabucco Pipeline: Real or Myth?


The energy history of East-West energy corridor has not started with Nabucco, but Nabucco was considered a crown-jewel of the Southern Gas Corridor. Nabucco Consortium was established with Ankara Agreement in 2009 by Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Austria to construct Nabucco gas pipeline with 31 bcm capacity from Turkey via Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary to Austria. Nabucco was planned to be linked with South Caucasus Pipeline in Erzurum, Turkey and Trans-Caspian Pipeline (TCP) in Azerbaijan to deliver Azeri and Turkmen gas to Europe to decrease the EU’s gas dependence on Russia. Continue reading

Never-ending Story of the Caspian: Legal Status, Astrakhan Summit and not only


The history of legal status of the Caspian is not a new issue, as it laid down in normative agenda of littoral states since Soviet era, even before the Soviet Union. Initial destiny of the Caspian has been defined through, Petersburg, Resht, Gulustan and Turkmenchay treaties, as well as ‘Treaty of Friendship’ and ‘Treaty of Commerce and Navigation’, between Russia and Iran (then USSR and Persia respectively). Continue reading

Legal knot in the Caspian Sea: Hard to Untie

452242When Vladimir Putin called the collapse of the Soviet Unions as a biggest geopolitical catastrophe, he meant a lot. Therefore, when Putin first came to power, he tried restore Russia’s lost image and political strength in order to carry out ‘therapy for geopolitical catastrophe’. The disintegration of the USSR left dozen of problems and legacy behind, one of which was the legal regime of the Caspian Sea. Continue reading

The Civilian Crisis Management Policy of the European Union in Afghanistan: Challenges for Police Mission


Photo credit: Ministero della Difesa http://www.difesa.it

The one of the directions of the European Union’s Common Security and Defense Policy is the civilian crisis management, which allows EU to enhance its civilian capacity in the third countries, thus by promoting peace and international security on the international level. In this regard, EU deployed its civilian police mission across the world’s most fragile regions where there is a necessity to deal with the civilian matters during post-conflict era. EU Police Mission is one of the instruments of the civilian dimension of the EU’s Common Security and Defense Policy. Continue reading

The Militarization of the Caspian Sea is Inevitable: Cooperation is Needed

caspiancThere is a strong linkage between energy and security. It can be a factor both for cooperation and conflicts, namely it can push forward for cooperation between two states, while at the same time can create tension between them. This tendency can be applied to Caspian Sea, which contains one of the largest oil and gas areas of the world. The energy diplomacy has been key factor for the political and economic development of Caspian states. Continue reading

Energy Conflicts in the Energy Sub-Hubs of Eurasia: How to get rid of it?

eurasia-map1Eurasia, where focused most of the geopolitical theories, experienced numerous wars, conflicts, revolutions, and chaos and became a candidate for aforementioned tendencies. The main object for wars and conflicts were “to capture more territories” and “enlargement”, while main politics was “divide, share and conquer”. Continue reading

Between TAP and Nabucco: Who is the “WINNER” of pipeline selection? – Azerbaijan or Russia?

imagesToday, every new pipeline changes the market and geopolitics of region. Two months ago, the final decision, made by Shah Deniz Consortium, suprised many people. The competition for which pipeline will deliver Azeri gas to Europe is “Almost” over. Shah Deniz Consortium opted Trans-Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) which will be connected with Trans-Anatolian Pipeline (TANAP) at Turkish-Greek border, although, Nabucco-West has strongly and diplomatically supported by European Union and United States. Continue reading

Russian-EU Energy Relations: from Cooperation toward Contradictions

flag-eu-russiaFollowing World War II, it was necessary to take new economic steps in order to overcome political problems among European countries. Establishment of the European Steel and Coal Community, the European Atomic Energy Community and the European Economic Community formed the/an/new European energy policy. Continue reading

Energy in Russian Foreign Policy: Soft Power, Hard Power, or Smart Power?

COA-map_of_RussiaThe Glasnost and Perestroika policy of Michael Gorbachov played a crucial role in demolition of Eastern block and Berlin Wall and this policy resulted with the collapse of Soviet Union in December of 1991. The biggest heir of the USSR was Russia. Following the collapse of USSR, the main goal of Russia was to gain its lost reputation and global player role. His best assistants in the implementation of these goals were the Kremlin and Gazprom, including his vast amount of energy resources. [5, Beniamin & Cosmin, pg.44] Continue reading

Energy Security Dimension in Foreign Policy


Today impact of the energy resources and energy security on international relations and foreign policy performance obviously demonstrate itself both politically and economically. Role of the energy resources in 21th century is not same as it is in 19th or 20th century. Notwithstanding, energy resources were utilized only for domestic (lightning) or technical (for cars and military equipments) purposes, the reality of 21th century requires more logical approach to energy resources. Continue reading

The New Trends in Russian Energy Policy following Third Presidency of Putin

The current Russian energy policy kept in memories only with its failures. Why? Every day I read dozen of news, articles, and columns about Russian energy policy. Almost in every piece I face with misleading information about Russian energy policy. Media is very strong ideological war tool and can manipulate mid-level community very easily with its baseless speculations. In my humble opinion, some news portal deliberately tries to blacken the energy image of Russia gained since Putin’s first presidency terms. However, Putin’s third presidency terms might be characterized with Russia’s successful steps toward “energy super-power” status. Continue reading

Energy Conflict Areas in Eurasia – From Geopolitics to Conflicts

Energy Conflict Areas in Eurasia

Energy Conflict Areas in Eurasia

From Geopolitics to Conflicts

From Geopolitics to Conflicts

Western Clouds are Looming on Gazprom’s Horizon: Does History Work against Russia?

On 4 September, the European Commission (EC) said it started a formal investigation into Russian gas monopoly Gazprom. The EC said that it is investigating three suspected anti-competitive practices in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Antoine Colombani, spokesman for EU Competition Commissioner Joaquin Almunia, listed the EC’s concerns as followings that Gazprom (Reuters): Continue reading

National Security Priorities of Russian Federation in the Context of Energy Security

The energy resources accumulated underground for long years, until, not resources but, cunning political leaders “discovered” or emerged. The significance of energy already understood during World War II, as Winston Churchill stated “A drop of oil is more valuable than a drop of blood”. Continue reading

Importance of Energy in the Economy of Russian Federation

Economic Profile of Russian Federation in the Energy Context

“Modern Russian economic system has a long historical background. The first coherent state ideology (autocracy, orthodoxy, and nationalism) of Russian government was developed by Czar Nikolai I. Russia needs strong leader (like Ivan Grozny, Peter the Great, Catherine II, Lenin, Stalin and Putin) in order to remain stronger both politically and economically. As the political leader is weak, the state also is getting weaker. Continue reading

Contact me at:


free counters

Blog Hit Counter

  • 37,651


wordpress stats